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Pollution Control

1) Know the Exhaust Emission Standards

a. Emission norms for passenger cars

Norms CO( g/km) HC+ NOx(g/km)
1991Norms 14.3-27.1 2.0(Only HC)
1996 Norms 8.68-12.40 3.00-4.36
1998Norms 4.34-6.20 1.50-2.18
India stage 2000 norms 2.72 0.97
Bharat stage-II 2.2 2.2
Bharat Stage-III 2.3 0.35(combined)
Bharat Stage-IV 1.0 Bharat Stage-IV

b. Emission norms for Heavy Diesel vehicles

Norms CO( g/kmhr) HC (g/kmhr) NOx (g/kmhr) PM(g/kwhr)
1991Norms 14 3.5 18 -
1996 Norms 11.2 2.4 14.4 -
India stage 2000 norms 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36
Bharat stage-II 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15
Bharat Stage-III 2.1 1.6 5.0 0.10
Bharat Stage-IV 1.5 0.96 3.5 0.02

c. Emission norms for Heavy Diesel vehicles

Norms CO( g/km) HC+ NOx)(g/km)
1991Norms 12-30 8-12 (only HC)
1996 Norms 4.5 3.6
India stage 2000 norms 2.0 2.0
Bharat stage-II 1.6 1.5
Bharat Stage-III 1.0 1.0

2) Effects on Human Health

The vehicular pollutants have damaging effects on both human health and ecology. The human health effects of air pollution vary in the degree of severity, covering a range of minor effects to serious illness, as well as premature death in certain cases. These pollutants are believed to directly affect the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. In particular, high levels of Sulphurdioxide and Suspended Particulate Matter are associated with increased mortality, morbidity and impaired pulmonary function.

Pollutant Effect on Human Health
Carbon Monoxide Affects the cardio vascular system, exacerbating cardiovascular disease symptoms, particularly angina; may also particularly affect fetuses, sick, anemic and young children, affects nervous system impairing physical coordination, vision and judgments, creating nausea and headaches, reducing productivity and increasing personal discomfort.
Nitrogen Oxides Increased susceptibility to infections, pulmonary diseases, impairment of lung function and eye, nose and throat irritations.
Sulphur Dioxide Affect lung function adversely.
Particulate Matter and Respirable Particulate Matter (SPM and RPM) Fine particulate matter may be toxic in itself or may carry toxic (including carcinogenic) trace substance, and can alter the immune system. Fine particulates penetrate deep into the respiratory system irritating lung tissue and causing long-term disorders.
  Impairs liver and kidney, causes brain damage in children resulting in lower I.Q., hyperactivity and reduced ability to concentrate.
Benzene Both toxic and carcinogenic. Excessive incidence of leukemia (blood cancer) in high exposure areas.
  PUC Certificate

Certificate It is mandatory for every vehicle owner to carry a valid Pollution Under Control Certificate and maintain in such a condition and shall be so driven so as to comply with the prescribed emission norms.

Q1. What is the penalty for not having the pollution certificate?

Ans. A vehicle, not carrying a valid PUC Certificate is liable to be prosecuted under Section 190(2) of the Motor Vehicles Act. A penalty of Rs.1000/- for first offence and Rs.2000/- for every subsequent offence of violation has been provided.

Q2. What happens if my vehicle is found visibly polluting although I am carrying a valid PUC certificate?

Ans. The PUC Certificate of your vehicle shall be cancelled and you will be directed (under Rule 116 of CMV Rules) to produce a fresh PUC Certificate within seven days. The failure to comply with this direction would result in prosecution under section 190(2) of the Motor Vehicles Act.

Q3. When does a vehicle require a PUC Certificate?

Ans. After the expiry of period of one year from the date of first registration, every motor vehicle is required to carry a valid PUC Certificate .

Q4. My vehicle is BS-I/ BS-II/BS-III/BS-IV Whether I need to obtain a PUC Certificate?

Ans. As per Central Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989, every motor vehicle (including those conforming to BS-I/ BS-II/ BS-III/BS-IV as well as vehicles plying on CNG/LPG) is required to carry a valid PUC Certificate after the expiry of period of one year from the date of its first registration. However the validity of 4 wheeled BS-IV compliant vehicles is one year and for other vehicles it is three months.

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